Algeria is an upper-middle income nation, and its e… [10] The Islamic influence in the area is also significant and North Africa is a major part of the Muslim world. North Africa's populous and flourishing civilization collapsed after exhausting its resources in internal fighting and suffering devastation from the invasion of the Banu Sulaym and Banu Hilal. The last Roman emperor was deposed in 476 by the Heruli general Odoacer. The tallest peaks are in the High Atlas range in south-central Morocco, which has many snow-capped peaks. Below we discuss the main 3 sub-regions (GCC, Levant, and North Africa) and mention which countries fall into each. During the 1950s and 1960s all of the North African states gained independence. Elsewhere, irrigation is essential to improve crop yields on the desert margins. [31] It was during this period that domesticated plants and animals were introduced in the region, spreading from the north and east to the southwest. Egyptians over the centuries have shifted their language from Egyptian (in its late form, varieties of Coptic) to modern Egyptian Arabic while retaining a sense of national identity that has historically set them apart from other people in the region. One country, two continents. These North African countries welcome you, stretching from the Atlantic shores of Morocco on the west coast all the way to the Suez Canal and the Red Sea in the east. It is also classified as an Upper Middle Income country by the World Bank and it has the largest reserves of oil in Africa. Its economy is largely based on hydrocarbons. The Maghreb or western North Africa on the whole is believed to have been inhabited by Berbers since at least 10,000 B.C.,[18] while the eastern part of North Africa or the Nile Valley has mainly been home to the Egyptians. North Africa is an economically prosperous area, generating one-third of Africa's total GDP. The earliest inhabitants of central North Africa have left behind significant remains: early remnants of hominid occupation in North Africa, for example, were found in Ain el Hanech, near Saïda (c. 200,000 BCE); in fact, more recent investigations have found signs of Oldowan technology there, and indicate a date of up to 1.8 million BCE. The UN subregion of North Africa consists of 7 countries at the northernmost part of the continent -- Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Sudan, Tunisia, Western Sahara. Some researchers have postulated that North Africa rather than East Africa served as the exit point for the modern humans who first trekked out of the continent in the Out of Africa migration.[23][24][25]. Most Egyptians are Sunni Muslim, although there is a significant minority of Coptic Christians. North African countries list. In the Sahara, the distinction between sedentary oasis inhabitants and nomadic Bedouins and Tuaregs is particularly marked. Like Algeria, desert covers most of Egypt. North Africa includes a number of Spanish and Portuguese possessions, Plazas de soberanía, Ceuta and Melilla and the Canary Islands and Madeira. A reason that countries with coastal access have limited water resources in North Africa is Aquifers beneath the Sahara The Great Man-Made River provides water for drinking and irrigation by using pipelines to pump water from As the Tassili n'Ajjer and other rock art findings in the Sahara have shown, the Sahara also hosted various populations before its rapid desertification in 3500 B.C and even today continues to host small populations of nomadic trans-Saharan peoples. You can get in touch with us on support@afrikanza.com. Tunisians have a diverse economy which continues to enjoy growth in the current economic climate. Even scholars debate what nations should officially constitute this nation, and there are something along the lines of 3 scholarly accepted definitions. Large protests also occurred in Algeria and Morocco to a lesser extent. North Africa, region of Africa comprising the modern countries of Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, and Libya. "Northern Africa" redirects here. To survive in North Africa, you have to accept the desert as your master, and then overcome it! Overview of North Africa North African countries hold an important place in the Bank Group's history: all were present in Khartoum (Sudan), when newly independent African countries gathered to discuss the creation of a premier financial institution for Africans, by Africans. This process of Arabization and Islamization has defined the cultural landscape of North Africa ever since. Tunisia has some beautiful beaches as well. km, Algeria happens to be the largest country in Africa. That country is the Arab Republic of Egypt. Tunisia (the capital is Tunis city) Egypt (the capital is Cairo city) In the north it is separated from Europe by the Mediterranean Sea, in the northeast, is separated from Asia by the Suez Canal and farther by the Red Sea. GCC With the exception of Iraq, all Arab states bordering the gulf make up the union, making the membership (alphabetically) Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates. The Numidian wars are notable for launching the careers of both Gaius Marius, and Sulla, and stretching the constitutional burden of the Roman republic as Marius required a professional army, something previously contrary to Roman values, to overcome the talented military leader Jugurtha. For the remaining North African countries the official language is Arabic. The largest sector is the services industry which contributes 62% of the GDP. 4._____________ irrigation isthe name given to the Nile Valley's water-control system of the past century,… Note: This is still a disputed land subject to ongoing conflict. Using this free map quiz game, you can learn about Nigeria and 54 other African countries. In 2010–2011 massive protests swept the region leading to the overthrow of the governments in Tunisia and Egypt, as well as civil war in Libya. The cultures of the Maghreb and the Sahara therefore combine indigenous Berber, Arab and elements from neighboring parts of Africa and beyond. In World War II from 1940 to 1943 the area was the setting for the North African Campaign. The islands were only recently inhabited after their discovery by the Portuguese sailors in the 15th century. Indigenous Berbers subsequently started to form their own polities in response in places such as Fez and Sijilmasa. Morocco occupies 710,850 km2 of land area characterized by desert and mountains. Ancient Egyptians record extensive contact in their Western desert with people that appear to have been Berber or proto-Berber. There is no singularly accepted scope for the region, and it is sometimes defined as stretching from the Atlantic shores of Mauritania in the west, to Egypt's Suez Canal and the Red Sea in the east. Trade routes between Europe and North Africa remained intact until the coming of Islam. The government is working to diversify Algeria's economy in order to protect the country if there is a drop in oil revenue. The Atlas Mountains—a complex cluster of ranges, ridges, plateaus, and basins—stretch for 1,200 miles along the North African coast from southwestern Morocco across Algeriato northeastern Tunisia. When Egypt entered the Bronze Age[35], the Maghreb remained focused on small-scale subsistence in small, highly mobile groups. That country is the Arab Republic of Egypt. Algeria covers 2,381,741 sq km. The small island nation of São Tomé and Príncipe is located in the Gulf of Guinea, off the coast of Central Africa. Egypt and the Nile River valley formed a cultural hearth, a place where ideas and innovations come together to change a region. Despite having one of the fastest growing economies in the world, a fifth of the population lives below the poverty line. South of the Atlas Mountains is the dry and largely barren expans… Over the years, Berbers have been influenced by contact with other cultures: Greeks, Phoenicians, Egyptians, Romans, Vandals, Arabs, Europeans and Africans. The Republic of Sudan is almost known as North Sudan since its split from South Sudan in 2011. (See Jewish exodus from Arab and Muslim countries. It identifies settlements based on visible activity without regard for social or political organizations of space in vast, purportedly "empty" areas. Scientists say that at some point in the past, a long, long time ago, the are used to be wet and green. The capital city of Algeria is Algiers. Its large population has to adhere to the laws set out by the Islamic Sharia law. miles) 52.4 % of the population is urban (129,068,218 people in 2019). The economies of Algeria and Libya were transformed by the discovery of oil and natural gas reserves in the deserts. By 700, most of North Africa had come under Muslim rule. There you have it, the countries of North Africa all in one place. The distinction between North Africa, the Sahel and the rest of the continent is as follows: Nineteenth century European explorers, attracted by the accounts of Ancient geographers or Arab geographers of the classical period, followed the routes by the nomadic people of the vast "empty" space. To alleviate some of the economic desperation driving migrants north, Europe set up the $1.8 billion Emergency Trust Fund for Africa in late 2015 to pay for projects including education development and employment support in 23 African countries that typically feed the migrant flow. The most spoken language is Darija, which is a form of ancient Arabic dating back from the 8th century AD that follows a Berber grammatical and syntactical structure. Sheltered valleys in the Atlas Mountains, the Nile Valley and Delta, and the Mediterranean coast are the main sources of fertile farming land. [7][8] As a result, many modern African nation-states that are included in the Sahel evidence cultural similarities and historical overlap with their North African neighbours. For the region of the United Nations, see, United Nations geoscheme for Africa § Northern Africa, List of ethnic groups of Africa § North Africa, Writing systems of Africa § Ancient orthographies, Learn how and when to remove this template message, List of African cuisines § Central African cuisine, Music of Africa § North Africa and the Horn of Africa, History of theatre § North African theatre, Traditional African religions § North Africa, Jewish exodus from Arab and Muslim countries, List of kingdoms in pre-colonial Africa § North Africa, History of North Africa § Classical period, History of North Africa § Arrival of Islam, History of science and technology in Africa § Northern Africa and the Nile Valley, Demographics of the Middle East and North Africa, European Digital Archive on Soil Maps of the World, "Figure 5: United Nations definition of African Regions: West, Northern,...", "The Circassian Qubbas of Abbas Avenue, Khartoum: Governors and Soldiers in 19th Century Sudan", "North Africa and the African Transition Zone", "The 'Greater Middle East' as a 'Modern' Geopolitical Imagination in American Foreign Policy", World Economic Outlook Database, April 2016, "Morocco 'mule women' in back-breaking trade from Spain enclave", "Refworld – Morocco: General situation of Muslims who converted to Christianity, and specifically those who converted to Catholicism; their treatment by Islamists and the authorities, including state protection (2008–2011)", "A Revised Root for the Human y Chromosomal Phylogenetic Tree: The Origin of Patrilineal Diversity in Africa", "Earliest evidence of modern human life history in North African early Homo sapiens", "Eritrea's human rights record comes under fire at United Nations", "Scientists Find the Skull of Humanity's Ancestor — on a Computer - By comparing fossils and CT scans, researchers say they have reconstructed the skull of the last common forebear of modern humans", "Deciphering African late middle Pleistocene hominin diversity and the origin of our species", "Green Sahara: African humid periods paced by Earth's orbital changes", "Humans as Agents in the Termination of the African Humid Period", "Egypt and the Mediterranean in the Bronze Age: The Archaeological Evidence", "Volubilis – Ancient Village or Settlement in Morocco", North Africa's Weather Forecasts and Weather Conditions, List of countries where Arabic is an official language, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=North_Africa&oldid=991650790, Articles with French-language sources (fr), Short description is different from Wikidata, Pages using collapsible list with both background and text-align in titlestyle, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from January 2019, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from December 2018, Articles needing additional references from June 2017, All articles needing additional references, Articles needing additional references from July 2020, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 266,000 (total land area, control is split between Morocco and the SADR), This page was last edited on 1 December 2020, at 03:51. 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